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Fire occurs from 3 basic elements- fuel, oxygen, and heat. It is called
“Theory of Fire Pyramid”

Elements of fire:

  • Fuel: in solid, fluid, and gaseous states
  • Oxygen: exists 21% in atmosphere
  • Heat: sufficient quantity to ignite fire


A combination of these three elements cause a “Chain Reaction


A Chain reaction is the reaction of a continuous fire ignites caused by existing combination of fuel, oxygen, and heat. The absence of one of these, fire ignite will not occur.



To effectively extinguish fire, it is crucial to know the types of flammable fire, which normally are classified into 3 classes:

Class A
Fire involving solid fuel i.e. wood, cloth, paper, rubber, and plastic. After completely burnt, these fuels leave ashes.

Class B
Fire involving flammable fluid i.e. benzine, thinner, color mixed oil, petrol, gasoline, polish oil, coal tar, and gas.

Class C
Fire involving electrical equipment i.e. short-circuit


Class K
Fire involving cooking oil